All cancers stem from changes that occur in the DNA sequence of the genomes of cancer cells. The application of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies in cancer research has provided a global view of the cancer genome. NGS applications such as whole genome, whole exome, and transcriptome sequencing have resulted in a huge expansion in our knowledge of oncogenic genomic alterations such as point mutations, insertions or deletions, copy number variants and structural variants. In addition,researchers have been able to use NGS technologies to identify new oncogenes and unravel the underlying molecular mechanisms of oncogenesis, metastasis, and tumour complexity and heterogeneity. This information can be used to inform on therapeutic and treatment options, as well as on diagnostic and preventive strategies.
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